Soils Drainage And Runoff Answer Key

Define porosity. This is the total volume of water flowing through a channel at any given point and is measured in cubic metres per second (cumecs). Good hydrology models account for soil water content when considering soil runoff. It is a good soil for building structures because it allows water to drain away from a building site but will not shift or move. Moisture is transported around the globe until it returns to the surface as precipitation. Percolation plays an important role in recharging groundwater aquifers. Solutions to hydrology questions exam 19 October, 2007-10-19 Problem 1 (10 credits) A lake has an area of 10 km2 Hydrology exam questions + answers. Water Erosion. Measure out 100 mL of water in the graduated cylinder. Many key biotic factors involve interactions between individuals. Removing all tree cover from a watershed greatly increases water runoff and loss of soil nutrients. What is the drainage class of the soil at this pit? A) Well drained B) Moderately well drained C) Somewhat poorly drained D) Poorly drained 2. Worksheet - Local Winds. Vegetation maintenance. When the septic tank reaches capacity, the material will return back up the drainage pipes into the house resulting in sewage being released into the basement. (water, weather, soil type, etc. We offer a broad range of high-quality and durable water management products to meet the performance needs of any size project. Only about 35% of precipitation ends up in the sea or ocean. Sedimentation is the build‐up of eroded soil particles that are transported in runoff from their site of origin and deposited in drainage systems, on other ground surfaces, or in bodies of water or wetlands. BMP Selection Chapter 2 2-2 Urban Drainage and Flood Control District August 2011 Urban Storm Drainage Criteria Manual Volume 3 area is too large, events that produce runoff from only a portion of the contributing area will pass. Surface runoff accounted for 60% of the water from the catchment and subsurface flow. Temperature 4. Publishing platform for digital magazines, interactive publications and online catalogs. This document and method is commonly called “The New Hampshire Method. EIA Sample Test Questions and Answer Key Introduction to EIA questions 1. Channels, ponds, reservoirs, culverts, and other natural or constructed drainage features in a watershed affect the runoff from the watershed. Because soil erosion is such an important issue to farmers, any practice that will help prevent water runoff or helps to maintain the strength of the soil structure will be beneficial. Porosity and Drainage Rate of Soil Laboratory Kit for environmental science contains three easy-to-follow lab activities that examine pore size, soil texture, compaction and more. on site topography, land drainage patterns, and other factors. 248 Unit 2:Earth's Surface. The von Post scale is used in modeling to predict bulk density, hydraulic conductivity, and n-value in organic soils. Indicate locations of standing water or ponding on the map. As material moves from the septic tank to the drain field, it is released into the soil through holes in the pipes. Where there is a superficial aquifer,. x ere, e, biosphere, and re x ongoing Earth t 1. Bats are valuable members of ecosystems around the world, saving farmers in the U. If the soil particles are held together in aggregates by organic matter or a small amount of clay, the soil will have a loose, friable structure that will allow rapid infiltration and drainage. Answer Key GRADE 8 PRACTICE TEST ANSWER KEY 2 Session Set Sequence Item Type Key Point Value Alignment 1 Solar Cooker 12 CR See Rubric 2 PE: 8-MS-PS3-3 SEP: 6. The specification of bunds for various soil types of Deccan and Karnataka, Khandesh and Gujarat are given in Table 5. The storm water management plan would include drainage swales (i. If one part of the drainage basin system changes, it can affect all the others. Answer: Wet fall and winter weather conditions are the obvious answer. Generally speaking, runoff is considered overland sheet flow for up to 30 m (100'), at which point it tends to form shallow concentrated flow. in UPTET परीक्षा Exam on 8 Jan 2020 school scholarship. 3 inch/hr when wet. Rural Sustainable Drainage Systems (RSuDS) 1 1 Introduction Man's activities on land, in both the built and rural environment can alter the characteristics of natural soils that can lead to losses of topsoil and increase the flow of water to rivers and lakes. through the soil is higher, the volume of runoff is lower. For a conceptual model, data about the features are needed to make a decision about which model to use and configure the model appropriately. Loam is dark in color and is mealy—soft, dry and crumbly—in your hands. doc), PDF File (. Somewhat poor drainage of the subsoil leads to the mottled look. Land may be smoothed with proper slopes and ditches so as to remove excess water before it enters the soil and thus prevent erosion, leaching of nutrients, and standing pools of water on the surface. Lab 3 - Soil Infiltration and Runoff You will be conducting field research on vegetation-covered, smooth-rock covered, paved, and bare soil surfaces after rainfall to determine infiltration and runoff results. For more serious lawn and garden drainage problems, there are several things you can try to improve soil drainage. more efficient x olid), water (liquid), and air (gas) D 18. gather from this experiment, which soil types do you think are most easily eroded, soils with a high sand content or high clay content. Soil microbes play a big role in soil formation and health. Student Handout—Calculating Runoff Answer Key Square inches or cm are AREA measurements, as is an acre. Some may refer to full storage in groundwater and soil due to the antecedent rainfall. Wetlands lie in depressions that trap runoff the same way reservoir holds. Only about 35% of precipitation ends up in the sea or ocean. Poor garden or lawn drainage will prevent oxygen from getting to the roots of plants, which kills the roots and also creates an environment perfect for fungus such as root rot to take hold and further damage a plant. hydrology. The chapter was prepared originally by Mockus (1964), and. Malchus Baker and Dr. Crumpled Paper Watershed, Continued Vocabulary The following terms are useful in this activity. This combined lab activity/lesson explores the impact of land use on the volume of runoff generation. Soil and Land Use Page 5 Answer Key : Question: Answer Soil and Land Use 1 E 2 D 3 D 4 E 5 D 6 B 7 C 8 B 9 D 10 C 11 D 12 A 13 B 14 C 15 C 16 B 17 C 18 B 19 C 20 C 21 C 22 A 23 D 24 C 11/20/2013 10:35:16 AM. Water moves in soils by surface tension, so where one soil particle touches another, the water will spread. A general water balance equation is: = + + where is precipitation is evapotranspiration is streamflow is the change in storage (in soil or the bedrock / ground water) This equation uses the principles of conservation of mass in a closed system, whereby any water entering a system (via precipitation), must be transferred into either evaporation, surface runoff (eventually reaching the channel. You will need these reference tables to answer some of the questions. Soil erosion by water - the loss of soil and sediment - is a serious problem that can have significant negative impacts on agricultural productivity, drainage and surface water quality. That means there’s less runoff. Soil Erodability: Based on the characteristics of each unique soil, it is more or less susceptible to erosion. Put a happy face next to the level that has the most available energy and a sad face next to the one with the least available energy. Calculating Property Drainage) Procedure For this activity you will need to review the Rational Method for calculating storm water runoff as presented in Activity 2. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AND DEVELOPMENT. depend upon the permeability of soil. This data table defines a subset of soil interpretations available for the Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for the State of Connecticut, which is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. It can cause water pollution too. It will be easy to fall behind and difficult to catch up. Channels, ponds, reservoirs, culverts, and other natural or constructed drainage features in a watershed affect the runoff from the watershed. Soil erosion is a natural phenomenon by which soil is removed from rocks. This book will also benefit those who plan to participate in a certification exam on the subject of soils, earthwork, grading, and foundations through gained knowledge on the most important issues relevant to the subjects. It also means more runoff, more percolation and more water erosion. For a conceptual model, data about the features are needed to make a decision about which model to use and configure the model appropriately. 3 Virtual Lab Exercise on Soils, Drainage and Runoff Cercone & Mount, IUP Goal 3: Find out how soils react to rainfall The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) classifies soils in a different way than geologists do - by looking at how well they hold water or let it drain out after a rainfall event. ” Talk to a classmate about the statement above and then answer: a) What do you think happens to this extra fertilizers that have accumulated in the soil of farms and homegardens when it rains?. Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70804-9245. Water Body a. Five steps to improving clay soils: Make raised beds to assist drainage and to reduce trampling of the soil ; Consider adopting a ‘no-dig’ regime, especially in raised beds, as these suit clay soils well ; Some, but not all, clay soils respond to extra calcium, which causes the soil particles to flocculate (clump. If you have heavy runoff from roof downspouts and neighboring properties, redirecting or capturing runoff can provide better control. They can be found horizontally, diagonally, or vertically. However, once humans and farming practices are involved, the natural erosion rate of soil may be altered. But soil texture is also important in governing the number of pores and their sizes: When finer-textured soils have strong aggregates due to good management, they can also maintain high infiltration rates. leaching 11. Monitoring and research to track trends and answer key science questions about phosphorus movement and impact of practices, 2) Implementation actions to reduce phosphorus loadings, and 3) Task forces, work groups, forums and the like. This worksheet has 26 Earth Science Regents multiple choice questions about the groundwater, infiltration and runoff. Indicate any areas of soil erosion which have resulted in gullies or ditches. pdf) Lab 9: Runoff Estimation (. (3) The surface runoff at B is greater than the surface runoff at A. One disadvantage of living in a floodplain is the risk of damaged property. Chapter 6 introduces a major new concept, hydraulic lift or hydraulic redistribution, which can supply substantial amounts of water to certain vegetation in both natural and agricultural soil systems. Plant nutrients are generally most available to plants in the pH range 5. Base your answer to the following question on the three maps below, which show the ice movement and changes at the ice front of an alpine glacier from the years 1874 to 1882. pdf) Lab 8 Answer Key (. Lab 3 - Soil Infiltration and Runoff You will be conducting field research on vegetation-covered, smooth-rock covered, paved, and bare soil surfaces after rainfall to determine infiltration and runoff results. Depending on the type of drain and the situation, tests that may be applied to a drain to test the joint performance include: coloured water test. It is commonly used in both hydrology and soil sciences. C = coefficient representing ratio or runoff to rainfall I = intensity of rainfall (in/hour or mm/hour) A = drainage area (acres or hectares) Iowa DOT Design Manual, Chapter 4, The Rational Method 12 Runoff Coefficient o Coefficient that represents the fraction of rainfall that becomes runoff o Depends on type of surface. In soils, k is the measurement of water ability to flow through them. These processes also transfer plant nutrients (Nitrogen, Phosphorus) and pesticides (PPPs). thickness D. To contaminate, to become unclean. Indicate any areas of soil erosion which have resulted in gullies or ditches. Soil Type: Sandy soils allow a high infiltration rate, so they have a relatively low storm water runoff rate and a relatively low runoff coefficient. Elaborate on the importance of GW and its historical background. RRB JE CBT 2 Answer Key for 28 Aug 2019 – From this page, you can get RRB JE CBT 2 Answer Key for 28 Aug exam. Answer Key to Land and Water Summative Assessment Item # and Standard Answer Notes 1‐INQC C 2‐ES2E Criteria for a complete response: Describes two ways runoff affects the land (e. The Greenfield runoff rate estimation tool calculates runoff rates for a site based on the correlation. The ideal mixture for agriculture is called loam and has roughly 40% sand, 40% silt and 20% clay. soil texture B. In the summer, moisture within the planting hole will be depleted by the plant but not replaced by water held more tightly in the native soil. This water is called A B c D the water cycle rain water runoff groundwater ABC PREVIEW The movement and recycling of the Earth's water is called the Water moves from the Earth to the air back to the Earth again. As runoff travels, it forms tiny grooves in the soil called rills. 4 Web Soil Survey. On tracing paper over any of the soil maps, outline an area with three or more different kinds of soil. Drill 2-6 holes into the bottom of the bucket for drainage. Many aspects of today’s environmental problems are only now coming to light as scientists explore the causes and effects of human impact on the world around us. The items you want saved in a report can be added to your shopping cart. The surface soil, or topsoil layer (O and A horizon in Figure 1-2 ), usually contains less clay, but more organic matter and air, than the lower soil layers. As material moves from the septic tank to the drain field, it is released into the soil through holes in the pipes. No water diversion methods are attempted. Soil compaction, low organic matter, loss of soil structure, poor internal drainage, salinisation and soil acidity problems are other serious soil degradation conditions that can accelerate the soil erosion. Infiltration rate > 0. precipitation, reservoir, runoff, transpiration, water cycle Use the information presented in the Gizmo to answer the. Additionally, some of the water may percolate downward through the soil or run over the soil surface (surface runoff). Somewhat poor drainage of the subsoil leads to the mottled look. The loss of soil and vegetation can remove an important. Basic Soils. 1 EIA is defined as (select one): a. Solution: Follow the steps below: Using equation 5 above, calculate the maximum potential retention S. groundwater. 1 Sort the following twelve terms into six pairs of terms that most closely relate to one another. Where there is a superficial aquifer,. How much does that change the answers you obtained. This activity is prepared to introduce the concept of soil permeability as one of the key parameters to study seepage or the steady state flow of water. The Problem with Stormwater Runoff in Pennsylvania. Soil scientists categorize soils by drainage classes. Nonpoint source pollution is caused due to land runoff, rain, drainage, seepage, atmospheric deposition, hydrologic modification, etc. Select an appropriate location on the school campus to construct a rain garden and describe characteristics of the runoff area in terms civil engineers would use (infiltration, percolation,. WSDOT revised the HRM to maintain equivalency with the Department of Ecology's Stormwater Management Manuals. Use of runoff or tailwater 5. WORD FIND #2 ANSWER KEY Find the bolded words in the puzzle below. The infiltration capacity is defined as the maximum rate of infiltration. This study assesses TRI values for six different plots and investigates the effects of rainfall intensity, surface soil moisture content at depths of 0-5 cm, soil and water conservation measures (longitudinal ridges, cross ridges, grass, forest, and flat field under. These are clayey soils with a high moisture retaining capacity. Letters A, B, and C show approximate positions of layers described before. H d H dH Ck u dt u dt Solution 9. 2 During the last century, geologists have observed an increase in soil erosion around the world. Soil is formed by… • Parent Material: the original “Mom & Pop” soil transported from elsewhere, usually by wind or water, at different speeds • Climate: the amount, intensity, timing, and kind of precipitation that breaks down parts of ecosystem (i. Sandy soil has a gritty texture because it is formed from small particles of weathered rock. Soil takes a very long time to form. It also provides an estimation of Qbar which is the mean annual maximum flow rate. Accelerated erosion due to misuse of resources of land, water and soil is today one of the most difficult and pressing problems before man. These high clay content soils are a minority of the soil types that occur in Iowa. Oct 26, 2019 - Some ideas, tips, and tricks to drain water away from houses or move water through an outdoor space. This means that water enters a channel quickly, leading to an increase in discharge. There are usually several soils on each watershed. ocean water. Personally, I've found the best success in my raised beds by using a combination of native soil (or garden soil) and organic material like compost, but depending on what you have available and your budget, you have many options to choose from. Drainage pipes must have flexible joints so that pipes are not damaged by differential settlement. Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science. Nutrient runoff into these ditches feed toxic algae blooms downstream. B)Moist air rises, becomes saturated, and condenses on microscopic particles. Find the right water management solution for you. Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition in the Texas Ecoregions: Weathering, erosion, and deposition shape the topography and soil characteristics of Earth’s surface. • Give each student one copy of the "The Movement of Water" worksheet and a pencil. be subject to gravity loading and natural. In addition, the bulk movement of water by precipitation, infiltration, transpiration, runoff and subsurface flow redistributes water around the globe. runoff Surface runoff Runoff Global warming Reduced recharge of aquifers and flooding from covering land with crops and buildings Aquifer depletion from overpumping Increased flooding from wetland destruction Point source pollution Groundwater movement (slow) Lakes and reservoirs Ice and snow Ocean Processes Processes affected by humans Reservoir. Students experiment on simple physical models of runoff for which they are able to vary land surface vegetation, soil type, slope, volume of rainfall, intensity of rainfall,and potentially antecedent moisture conditions. ) for the site as a whole or the applicable drainage area. Sand may be compacted to add additional stability to the soil. Record the runoff coefficients dictated by the STSM that you will need to calculate site runoff. Subsurface tile drains; 4. ” A clay soil leaves a “slick” surface on the thumb and fingers when. After watching a video, students classify soils using a ternary soil diagram and run online computer models to see how the proportion of sand, silt and clay affect drainage. water volume (mL) Your answer: Calculate the permeability for each soil sample in milliliters per minute. A) timeliness of tillage is more critical for clay soils than for sandy soils B) soil applied herbicides must usually be applied at higher rates on sandy soils than on clay soils C) it takes more lime to change the pH of clay soils compared to sandy soils D) clay soils can hold more water and nutrients than sandy soils. Learn that, when natural drainage characteristics are modified for a new land use, runoff must be controlled and discharges minimized by designed structures to prevent. Completing this fact sheet will help you evaluate how storm water affects the environmental quality of your property and properties downstream. When enough soil is removed from the surface of the land, we get erosion. 5 Teacher Masters Answer Key Bridges In. Land use 5. This combined lab activity/lesson explores the impact of land use on the volume of runoff generation. This is an explosive volcano that could produce lahars that flow down the mountain. • Give each student one copy of the "The Movement of Water" worksheet and a pencil. Pedogenesis is primarily influenced by topography's effect on microclimate and drainage. STORM WATER – storm water runoff, snow melt runoff and surface runoff and drainage. retard drainage. The Movement of Soil, Part 1 By Trista L. the soil covers 40 percent part of total geographical area of India. Soil has both inherent and dynamic qualities (USDA, 2006). (You will want to add notes in addition to the questions you answer – especially for the elements: Ca, Mg, K and S) The Water Cycle. • Water pollution/stormwater runoff • Soil compaction from the construction process or by machinery use • Sediment runoff/erosion in wet weather • Noise pollution from machinery • Construction waste disposal/landfill • Gases/pollution emitted from machinery such as CO 2, NO 2, SO 2, CO, PM. This means that water enters a channel quickly, leading to an increase in discharge. It also provides an estimation of Qbar which is the mean annual maximum flow rate. A coarse-textured or sandy soil is one comprised primarily of sand-sized particles. Temperature 4. This video describes the von Post Humification method to determine organic soil decomposition and characteristics using the von Post Humification scale. Dan Neary, USFS, explained the purpose of the Beaver Creek Experimental Watershed: to determine the potential for increasing water yield by manipulating ponderosa pine and pinyon-juniper vegetation types and to determine effects of treatments on the other watershed resources. Soil can be classified into 3 primary types based on its texture – sand, silt, and clay. underground 2. On land the situation is considerably more complex, and includes the deposition of rain and snow on land; water flow in runoff; infiltration of water into the soil and groundwater; storage of water in soil, lakes and streams, and groundwater; polar and glacial ice; and use of water in vegetation and human activities. Percolation Lab 3. Highway Runoff Water Quality (DR024) Washington State DOT (33 minutes) Describes a research study performed on the effects of runoff from highways on the quality of water bodies receiving the drainage. They can be found horizontally, diagonally, or vertically. 7 ALLUVIAL FANS 312. 6 Residential Drainage Plan. pdf) Answer Keys: Lab 1 Answer Key (. Solution: Follow the steps below: Using equation 5 above, calculate the maximum potential retention S. Many key biotic factors involve interactions between individuals. No special water diversion methods are installed, but storm water has never entered the basement. Part I: Multiple Choice. When streams. Forests protect and purify water. Remember to be successful in Junior High, you must be able to budget your time!! Coordinate all your classes and the homework required. Following is the brief of their runoff and infiltration properties: A Lowest runoff potential (Greater than0. Activities such as logging, building houses, and farming remove plants that cover the ground. Definition of runoff. , 2001) while accounting for a variety of beneficial soil amendment properties, including minimisation of water runoff through increased infiltration, stabilisation of. As water runs over and through the watershed, it picks up and carries contaminants and soil. 2012 Wisconsin Envirothon KEY Aquatic Ecology Exam. (a) 1 and 2 only (b) 1, 2 and 3 (c. Layers of soil, sand, and rocks that store groundwater. chemical weathering 9. BMP Selection Chapter 2 2-2 Urban Drainage and Flood Control District August 2011 Urban Storm Drainage Criteria Manual Volume 3 area is too large, events that produce runoff from only a portion of the contributing area will pass. Stormwater is a term used to describe water flowing over ground surfaces and in natural streams and drains as a direct result of rainfall over a catchment. Drill 2-6 holes into the bottom of the bucket for drainage. that incorrect because mist is made of A ee of B C points to a that has a smaller degree of ts to A grometer B anemometer measures wind speed. Which one of the following processes is not biological? structure of a plant root system is influenced by its competition with the root systems other plants growing in the soil, drainage, aeration, and physical obstructions. Watershed- The boundary between two separate basins. Use this document to record your Table Data as well as answer the Journal Questions. The volume is measured in cubic metres (m 3) and it's per second so the units of discharge are cubic metres a second or m 3 s-1. As you read about rivers,. WORD FIND #2 ANSWER KEY Find the bolded words in the puzzle below. Question : A farmer has concerns about the nitrogen levels in her soils. the soil both by adding important nutrients for plants and 20 by providing excellent drainage. Example:Calculate the runoff depth for the 100 year storm event over the watershed with an average CN of 75 using the SCS Runoff Method. 7 and depicted in Figure 5. You are to answer all questions in all parts of this examination. Designed and developed by a veteran contractor, this machine makes installing silt fence easy and economical and works in a huge variety of conditions, including wet and rocky soil. However, the percentage of these can vary, resulting in more compound types of soil such as loamy sand, sandy clay, silty clay, etc. and the interaction of the soil-plant system with the weather (see Section 5). fossil fuels, uranium 2. Test Your Hypothesis [Filename: Chap16. C- DRAINAGE BASIN, HOLDS EXTRA COLLECTED WATER D- DELTA E- MEANDER F- OXBOW LAKE. Humus creates pores in the soil, thereby increasing a soil's ability to retain water. This is because the soil was saturated with moisture for certain periods. 4) The surface runoff at B is greater than the surface runoff at A. The book leaves a 'lot of holes' in this areait does not expound on the necessary steps needed to reach an answer for various scenarios such as water runoff rates, sediment delivery ratios, soil loss rates, etc;. If drainage density is more, peak runoff is more. Search for lab data on a map, via custom filters. Some of the water percolates into the soil and into the ground water only to be drawn into plants again for transpiration to take place. The Runoff Processes module offers a thorough introduction to the runoff processes critical for flood and water supply prediction. Most models use simple laws for effective runoff and mass transfer that create drainage. In terms of surface drainage if water has no avenue to escape, or is trapped in one spot it is:. To figure this out, the students need to design an experiment in which they plants seedlings in soils with. Moisture is transported around the globe until it returns to the surface as precipitation. Dan Neary, USFS, explained the purpose of the Beaver Creek Experimental Watershed: to determine the potential for increasing water yield by manipulating ponderosa pine and pinyon-juniper vegetation types and to determine effects of treatments on the other watershed resources. A portion of the slab is considered as the effective flange width for the beam. Hydrological balance of Awash River Basin A delicate hydrological balance characterizes the lower Awash River Basin where, in a normal year, inflows equal losses in lakes and wetlands (Table 1). North Carolina State University • 4-H Plant and Soil Sciences ii Soil Solutions Introduction Soil Solutions brims with hands-on science lessons that utilize the local school landscape to connect students to the world of soils and plants in an inviting and relevant way. Runoff is obviously related to other factors such as permeability and slope. A random system is useful for draining irregularly dispersed wet pockets in the landscape. Bats are valuable members of ecosystems around the world, saving farmers in the U. Land also includes the soils in which crops are grown. Just Scentsational’s Trident’s Pride by Bare Ground soil Just Scentsational’s Trident’s Pride by Bare Ground soil conditioning granules are a small grained pumice that has been infused with an all-natural cold pressed fish hydrolysate packed with vitamins, amino acids, microbes and enzymes and other nutrients that all soils and plants require for rapid, dynamic and optimal growth in. If the soil particles are held together in aggregates by organic matter or a small amount of clay, the soil will have a loose, friable structure that will allow rapid infiltration and drainage. Answer Key for Environmental Geology Lab 5 1. contain a high iron content. Cleaning and Sanitizing 4 dissolved in the hot gel and the resulting jelled acid or alkaline detergent is sprayed on the surface to be cleaned. It occurs when the soil is saturated or unable to absorb. The von Post scale is used in modeling to predict bulk density, hydraulic conductivity, and n-value in organic soils. Includes: Permeability: Water runs off more quickly from impermeable surfaces; less volume infiltrates. Because the benefits from tile drainage are multiple, computing the overall yield benefit isn’t straightforward. It is miscible with virtually all solvents. A World of Soils. What is sustainable drainage? A sustainable approach to drainage is to manage the surface water runoff from rainfall near to where it lands, at source, and to consider carefully where excess runoff is discharged by following a hierarchical approach. The items you want saved in a report can be added to your shopping cart. Guidance in determining the runoff class is based on the soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (K Sat) and the percent slope of the site. Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition in the Texas Ecoregions: Weathering, erosion, and deposition shape the topography and soil characteristics of Earth’s surface. Chapter 6 also has a new section on urban soil runoff and hydrology, as well as consideration of urban drainage issues. Runoff water leads to further erosion, and if used with other methods, retaining walls can be a very effective way to prevent soil erosion. Main Channel and tributary characteristics-channel morphology. The process of soil development is often refered to as soil weathering. ) Copy definitions for the three key terms into your notes. Growing Healthy Soil Guide (pdf) - Has more information on using compost and mulches for a healthy, easy-care yard. The level of Lake Abe thus rises and falls according to the balance. Presented By: Sahar Sohail. ice ages 12. The excess porewater pressure distribution when a vertical stress, σ, is applied varies parabolically with a value of zero at the top boundary and ub at the bottom boundary. Which graph shows the effect of soil permeability on the amount of runoff in an area? 1) 3) 2) 4) 22. ANSWER KEY -300 09-08-2019 21-08-2019. This worksheet has 26 Earth Science Regents multiple choice questions about the groundwater, infiltration and runoff. WSDOT revised the HRM to maintain equivalency with the Department of Ecology’s Stormwater Management Manuals. is when farmers apply large amounts of irrigation water to leach salts deeper into the soil, but without adequate drainage, water accumulates underground and gradually raises the water table, enveloping the deep roots of plants and lowering their productivity and killing them after prolonged exposure. GATE Agricultural Engineering Syllabus 2020:Check out the latest GATE Exam Syllabus for Agricultural Engineering (AG). These four ingredients react with one another in amazing ways, making soil one of our planet’s most. 1) vegetation and soil type 2) stream size and drainage pattern 3) latitude and longitude 4) elevation and bedrock structure 5. loamy, clumpy soil with a neutral pH and a dark color. Main Channel and tributary characteristics-channel morphology. WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT - The Hydrological Cycle and Human Impact on it - Lev S. C = coefficient representing ratio or runoff to rainfall I = intensity of rainfall (in/hour or mm/hour) A = drainage area (acres or hectares) Iowa DOT Design Manual, Chapter 4, The Rational Method 12 Runoff Coefficient o Coefficient that represents the fraction of rainfall that becomes runoff o Depends on type of surface. Knowing how to identify the signs of a drainage problem and what to do if your home has a drainage problem is important. chemical weathering 9. Poor garden or lawn drainage will prevent oxygen from getting to the roots of plants, which kills the roots and also creates an environment perfect for fungus such as root rot to take hold and further damage a plant. Soil Type: Sandy soils allow a high infiltration rate, so they have a relatively low storm water runoff rate and a relatively low runoff coefficient. Personally, I've found the best success in my raised beds by using a combination of native soil (or garden soil) and organic material like compost, but depending on what you have available and your budget, you have many options to choose from. An alluvial fan forms when sediments are deposited in a triangle shape at the base of a mountain stream. The von Post scale is used in modeling to predict bulk density, hydraulic conductivity, and n-value in organic soils. This is radial drainage. Soil Erosion—Quiz Answer Key 2 1. You will need these reference tables to answer some of the questions. Only the answer “bubbles” filled in on the answer sheet will be graded by an Optical Mark Reader (OMR) scanner as shown in the diagram to the right. Round your answers to the nearest tenth. This is because the soil was saturated with moisture for certain periods. Read and follow the instructions on the left side of the screen. D Deforestation has played a role in the rapid increase in erosion. A key assumption in. Time allowed = 65 minutes. 50 Soils, land use Calibration, divides surface and subsurface flow LSUR Length of overland flow feet 200 500 100 700 Topography Estimate from maps or GIS SLSUR Sol pe of overal nd fol w plane. soils, contributing drainage area, groundwater, baseflows, wetlands, existing drainageways, and Gravitational separation of particulates from urban runoff, or sedimentation, is a key treatment process by BMPs that capture and slowly release runoff. Salt in small quantities will not kill grass, but salt in the soil will absorb moisture and nutrients until it is no longer able to sustain growth. The concentration of Ca2+ in the creek increased four-fold, while concentration of K+ increased by a factor of 15. You will need these reference tables to answer some of the questions. The SWCD encourages a cooperative effort between landowners to solve these problems, for it is usually the most successful method for all parties involved. Forest soils act like a huge sponge, capturing and filtering amazing quantities of rainfall. An example of precipitation. Manure land application plans should be custom. These sources may be in various jurisdictions where the laws vary or enforcement is difficult. The method is described in detail in National Engineering Handbook (2004). 268 alluvial fan p. pdf), Text File (. Drainage Questions and Answers Ohio Laws governing water rights and drainage are very complex. Then, we review the principles of restoration, forest management, soil conservation, crop management,. Surface runoff is the water which directly flows across the land into streams rivers or lakes. Read this article to learn about Soil Fertility - Its Meaning, Causes and Maintenance! Soil fertility may be defined as the ability of soil to provide all essential plant nutrients in available forms and in a suitable balance whereas soil productivity is the resultant of several factors such as soil fertility, good soil management practices availability of water supply and suitable climate. Similar to soil moisture, the runoff comparison has a mismatch between the simulation and observations: the CMIP5 models define runoff as the total liquid water leaving the grid cell, which accounts for both surface and subsurface terms, while the GRDC runoff product assumes all water leaving a grid cell emerges as river discharge at a given. Soil exposed along bluffs of Elkhorn River just west of Omaha. There are many acceptable answers to this question. The Department of Ecology reissued the Permit, on April 5, 2019. But soil texture is also important in governing the number of pores and their sizes: When finer-textured soils have strong aggregates due to good management, they can also maintain high infiltration rates. Hydrological balance of Awash River Basin A delicate hydrological balance characterizes the lower Awash River Basin where, in a normal year, inflows equal losses in lakes and wetlands (Table 1). Casa Grande soils are on fan terraces and relict basin floors and have slopes of 0 to 5 percent. Plant nutrients are generally most available to plants in the pH range 5. Storm water runoff has entered the basement or flows near the foundation. 1) vegetation and soil type 2) stream size and drainage pattern 3) latitude and longitude 4) elevation and bedrock structure 5. Just like the 2014 Geography paper, this question paper was also provided by our user ‘N‘. Water runoff Precipitation Some water ends up on land and soaks into the ground. 248 Unit 2:Earth's Surface. STORM WATER – storm water runoff, snow melt runoff and surface runoff and drainage. fertilizers tend to accumulate in the soil. Macro pores allow for free drainage of water and are filled with air in unsaturated conditions. (See USDA-NRCS Soil Survey Manual, Agricultural Handbook 18, 1993. in the 2nd edition, and there is an answer key following the Glossary. 4 Performance Indicator: Students will be able to implement Boolean equations into a functional state machine. NDS Principles of Exterior Drainage - Short Course 3 Section I: Background Information Necessity for Drainage in Relation to Healthy Soil/Plant Life Capillary moisture is essential to the maintenance of good soil characteristics and healthy turf. Look for soils that contain organic materials like peat moss to allow for adequate drainage. Soil Erosion—Quiz Answer Key 2 1. Answer Key: The Water Cycle (also known as the hydrologic cycle) is the journey water takes as it circulates from the land to the sky and back again. The table below summarizes some of the physical properties of the Hydrologic Soils groups:. These techniques will minimize the amount of water that accumulates or that causes erosion in the problem area. Nutrient overloading: runoff associated with soil erosion includes dissolved and suspended load material that serve as nutrients for algal growth. Possible answer: It is difficult to stop or reduce nonpoint-source pollution because the pollution comes from many sources. G for answers to Reading Checks. Soil consists of decayed organic matter, called humus, and minerals. large peak runoff volumes and supporting aquatic ecosystems 4,5. Unformatted text preview: Name Learning Unit 7 Flood Review Questions This assignment is designed to assess your understanding of Unit 6 and includes some of the Questions for Review at the end of Chapters 10 15 and 14 from your text plus a few additional questions Each question can be answered in one to two sentences Please limit yourself to a maximum of three sentences Access the assignment. Percolation Lab 3. , soil and plants are eroded and deposited elsewhere, gullies are formed, the water becomes dark. Many clay-rich soils are notorious for having poor drainage, high water retention, and substandard building surface potential. Only about 1% of Earth’s water is available for human use. 2 m3/s and the outflow from the lake via another river was on average 1. • Flooding/bank erosion/turbidity/loss of aquatic organisms caused by excessive runoff into surface waters • Groundwater depletion because water runs off rather than infiltrating soil/recharging aquifers • Drying of soil/subsidence/formation of sinkholes because water runs off instead of infiltrating soil. Learn that, when natural drainage characteristics are modified for a new land use, runoff must be controlled and discharges minimized by designed structures to prevent. 3 Field capacity. 5% Answer Key: D Q56 :. A) timeliness of tillage is more critical for clay soils than for sandy soils B) soil applied herbicides must usually be applied at higher rates on sandy soils than on clay soils C) it takes more lime to change the pH of clay soils compared to sandy soils D) clay soils can hold more water and nutrients than sandy soils. XPSolutionsMedia by Innovyze 17,488 views. No special water diversion methods are installed, but storm water has never entered the basement. Measure one cup of soil for each soil type. Infiltration rate 0. Runoff Class The runoff class of the site can be determined from soil survey data. Relief, also called topography, describes the shape of the land surface. Adding compost to the soil can help offset any deficiencies in the nature of the native soil. Silty soil is very similar in composition to sandy soil, albeit with more nutrients and minerals. The main layers of the soil are topsoil, subsoil and the parent rock. Select an appropriate location on the school campus to construct a rain garden and describe characteristics of the runoff area in terms civil engineers would use (infiltration, percolation,. This distribution rarely occurs because porespace varies with soil texture and soil management. All of the land area that supplies water to a particular river system is called a. KEY TERMS: Drainage basin- The area that is drained by a river and its tributaries. stormwater runoff, full of pollutants from roofs, sidewalks, roads and parking lots. The von Post scale is used in modeling to predict bulk density, hydraulic conductivity, and n-value in organic soils. Table 1 lists Illinois soils and their hydrologic soil groups, namely A, B, C or D. Then fill in the heading of your answer sheet. Soil erosion can be a slow process that continues relatively unnoticed or can occur at an alarming rate, causing serious loss of topsoil. Storm water runoff has entered the basement or flows near the foundation. Water harvesting techniques – classification based on source, storage and use. Where A's generally have the smallest runoff potential and Ds the greatest. pollutants 8. Review the graphs below and answer the questions that follow. 0700 Introduction This chapter defines four hydrologic soil groups, or HSGs, that, along with land use, management prac-tices, and hydrologic conditions, determine a soil's associated runoff curve number (NEH630. Quantifiable soil. Indicate any areas of soil erosion which have resulted in gullies or ditches. Write a few sentences that describe how water. Virtual Lab Exercise on Soils, Drainage and Runof Cercone & Mount, IUP Soils, Drainage and Runof Goal 1: Classify soils by grain size Watch this video first to learn how to use plot soil components on a ternary diagram: Soil has sometime been called ‘the humble remains of once proud bedrock. Carbon/Oxygen Cycle Introduction Carbon is an element that is found in all organisms, fossil fuels, soil, the ocean, and the atmosphere. The block diagram below represents the drainage basins of some river systems separated by highland divides, shown with dashed lines. Reservoirs are the key infrastructure for the socio-economic development of a country. Pedon Map and Data. What is the drainage class of the soil at this pit? A) Well drained B) Moderately well drained C) Somewhat poorly drained D) Poorly drained 2. Sponge Runoff lab answer key Glossary Mechanical Weathering Mechanical weathering occurs when physical forces break rock into smaller and smaller pieces without changing the rock’s mineral composition. Site Grading. This worksheet has 26 Earth Science Regents multiple choice questions about the groundwater, infiltration and runoff. Topics Addressed: Zone of Aeration and Zone of Saturation, Water. 1 Sort the following twelve terms into six pairs of terms that most closely relate to one another. Time to runoff initiation (TRI) is an important factor related to water infiltration, runoff generation, and hillslope erosion. Removing all tree cover from a watershed greatly increases water runoff and loss of soil nutrients. D soils have the lowest infiltration rates, and therefore contribute the most runoff. Soil Type: Sandy soils allow a high infiltration rate, so they have a relatively low storm water runoff rate and a relatively low runoff coefficient. ous types of soil structures. Guidance in determining the runoff class is based on the soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (K Sat) and the percent slope of the site. Soil, the biologically active, porous medium that has developed in the uppermost layer of Earth's crust. This distribution rarely occurs because porespace varies with soil texture and soil management. Is the Rational Method allowed for drainage areas larger than 5 acres in size? yes. Soils and soil properties are fundamental to the partitioning of water inputs at the earth surface, so we focus on quantification of soil attributes important for understanding infiltration and runoff generation processes. 7 ALLUVIAL FANS 312. 2-5 cm below the top of each container, drill or cut a round hole that can be tightly plugged by a rubber stopper, or use glue to tightly fit a run-off tube into the hole. (1) Briefly explain the key factors that influence soil drainage. The structure of the soil, especially of clay, is affected by pH. This type of hydrograph is known as a storm or flood hydrograph. If untreated, these pollutants wash directly into waterways carried by runoff from rain and snowmelt. Typically the erosion rate of soil is almost equal to the formation rate of soil. What can she do to ensure that the nitrogen bacteria are replenished in the soil? Plant a crop of mushrooms to speed up decomposition. How to improve clay soils. 180) Multiple-Choice Questions 1. Conversely, drainage basins with permeable rock and soil types tend to have low drainage density. Due to the strong physical properties of. Included: 22 Task Cards, Printable Answer Sheet for students and an Answer Key for teachers. For broader construction application, the two-phase practice of Deep Ripping and Decompaction is best adapted to areas impacted with significant soil compaction, on contiguous open portions of large. Virtual Lab on Weathering and Erosion Link Conditions and processes in the environment cause stone and other earth materials to break apart. When you take steps to improve soil drainage, you can improve the overall health of your. D Deforestation has played a role in the rapid increase in erosion. A portion of the slab is considered as the effective flange width for the beam. Dan Neary, USFS, explained the purpose of the Beaver Creek Experimental Watershed: to determine the potential for increasing water yield by manipulating ponderosa pine and pinyon-juniper vegetation types and to determine effects of treatments on the other watershed resources. In the no-till drainage, the crop rotation nearest the flume was winter. Muzzle, ears, wings c. Name: ____ April Canales _____ LAB Groundwater and Soil 1. They compete for limited resources, such as food, light, space, and mates. When you're sure clay soil is causing the drainage problem, you can improve the growing conditions. It forms when waves erode a sea arch and the arch. Typically the erosion rate of soil is almost equal to the formation rate of soil. 4) The surface runoff at B is greater than the surface runoff at A. Stream 3 is forced to accept more water below B due to inadequate drainage at A. It is one of the principal substrata of life on Earth, serving as a reservoir of water and nutrients, as a medium for the filtration and breakdown of wastes, and as a participant in the cycling of elements. When a property is developed, it is important to understand that changes to watershed characteristics (i. doc), PDF File (. 267 divide p. The first stop of the Field Day on Beaver Creek was at Watershed 14. This is radial drainage. Part of this water is delivered via underground passaged in the lime stone (Table 1). A)A and B B)B and C C)C and D D)D and A. In fine textured (clayey) soils, drainage may take some (2-3) days. Title: Student Exploration- Water Cycle (ANSWER KEY). These groups are labeled A, B, C and D. Explore the ways for us to protect these vital natural resources. info has prepared the answer key of APSC Combined Competitive (Prelims) Exam 2013 Geography paper. [VIDEO] InstaDaily Current Affairs and News Analysis (The Hindu) and Answer Writing Guidance (I-CAN) May 2-4, 2020 [UPDATE] : Discussion Thread for STEP-UP Series 2020(All India Free Open Mock Tests)- TEST 2 [UPDATE] Postponed – UPSC Civil Services (IAS) Prelims 2020; Calendar. A chapter on physical properties and issues was divided into two ( chapters 5 and 6 ), and chapters were added on the principles of ecological soil. Soil takes a very long time to form. • Water pollution/stormwater runoff • Soil compaction from the construction process or by machinery use • Sediment runoff/erosion in wet weather • Noise pollution from machinery • Construction waste disposal/landfill • Gases/pollution emitted from machinery such as CO 2, NO 2, SO 2, CO, PM. Brothers' class website! I hope you find it to be a useful resource for this science class! The links include general information about the course, details about the topics of study, extra study tools, and extra resources for labs and projects. Topics addressed: Phase changes of water, Energy and phase changes, Evaporation rate, Processes in the water cycle, Groundwater zones, Water table, Permeability of soil, Porosity of soil, Capillarity of soil, Water retention in soil, Runoff, Groundwater. Nutrient runoff into these ditches feed toxic algae blooms downstream. Includes: Permeability: Water runs off more quickly from impermeable surfaces; less volume infiltrates. thickness D. Materials. Use the Langlade County Soil Survey for the following four questions. Windbreaks are rows of trees planted between fields to "break," or. The most significant 20th-century development in drainage technology was the application of land-grading techniques to facilitate uniform runoff. Erosion is transported by wind, water, glacier runoff, and human impact. through the soil is higher, the volume of runoff is lower. B)Moist air rises, becomes saturated, and condenses on microscopic particles. Then, we review the principles of restoration, forest management, soil conservation, crop management,. ADVERTISEMENTS: Introduction Permeability is one of the important physical properties of soil as some of the major problems of soil mechanics are directly connected with it. Essentially, any device, practice, or procedure that has demonstrated to effectively control either the quality and/or quantity of stormwater runoff while maintaining compatibility with the planned land used are classified. This soil covers an area of 15 lakh sq km in India and mainly contributes in the development of agriculture. This type of hydrograph is known as a storm or flood hydrograph. Soils on moderately sloping to steep topography are usually well drained. Where!a!coastline!turns!and!interrupts!longshore!drift,!sand!may!be!deposited!in!a!fingerlike!. Water that moves over Earth’s surface when it rains is called Runoff. drainage product manufactures are going to. D: The Neolithic period, during which humans transitioned from hunting and gathering to settled agriculture, began between 5,000 and 25,000 years ago. Where there is a superficial aquifer,. It is commonly used in both hydrology and soil sciences. Soil scientists categorize soils by drainage classes. Answer Key GRADE 8 PRACTICE TEST ANSWER KEY 2 Session Set Sequence Item Type Key Point Value Alignment 1 Solar Cooker 12 CR See Rubric 2 PE: 8-MS-PS3-3 SEP: 6. rm correct because rain is a liquid form C liquid water droplets. The key to soil conservation lies in a delicate ecosystem of multiple best practices, players, and products. ous types of soil structures. Soil is considered to include dead and dying organic matter. Answer the following questions. To achieve this goal, we identify nine key soil properties, explain how students can determine each property, and summarize this process in evaluation rules. Wetlands lie in depressions that trap runoff the same way reservoir holds. Student Handout—Calculating Runoff Answer Key Square inches or cm are AREA measurements, as is an acre. pdf] - Read File Online - Report Abuse. Indicate any areas of soil erosion which have resulted in gullies or ditches. Humus creates pores in the soil, thereby increasing a soil's ability to retain water. Redirect downspouts so the runoff washes over vegetation, not the driveway or roads. Soil composition activity and lesson. To stop the formation of sulfuric acid, the waste rock and tailings from a mine must be prevented from coming in contact with oxygen. C)Moist air falls and reaches the dewpoint in clean air. To contaminate, to become unclean. What can she do to ensure that the nitrogen bacteria are replenished in the soil? Plant a crop of mushrooms to speed up decomposition. valleys,flood plain. GATE Agricultural Engineering Syllabus 2020:Check out the latest GATE Exam Syllabus for Agricultural Engineering (AG). " A clay soil leaves a "slick" surface on the thumb and fingers when. For a given surface area such as a roof or yard, multiply the area by the inches of rainfall and divide by 231 to obtain the runoff in gallons. The key is to slope away from the house to drain water getting near the foundation - and the prime solution is usually to use gutters and downspouts to get the large amount of water generated as roof runoff away from the foundation and draining to a point where it will stay away from the house, and if necessary using swales and/or french. “Runoff” refers to the water that flows over soil’s surface. The three areas separated by highland divides are called. 4 Performance Indicator: Students will be able to implement Boolean equations into a functional state machine. Agricultural Pollution: Farming wastes, including runoff and leaching of pesticides and. Answers Erosion and Deposition Chapter Tests Erosion and Deposition Chapter Test A be r 1. Answer Key to Land and Water Summative Assessment Item # and Standard Answer Notes 1‐INQC C 2‐ES2E Criteria for a complete response: Describes two ways runoff affects the land (e. Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70804-9245. 1 above may be used for the indicated practices. A key assumption in. Career Paths: Agricultural Engineering is a new educational resource for agricultural engineering professionals who want to improve their English communication in a work environment. Nutrient, herbicide, and sediment loading from agricultural fields cause environmental and economic damage. A classification for engineering purposes should be based mainly on mechanical properties, e. Macro pores are destroyed when soil is compacted, making it hard for water to drain and for roots to penetrate soil layers. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AND DEVELOPMENT. Hydrology is the study of occurrence and movement of water above or below the surface. This study assesses TRI values for six different plots and investigates the effects of rainfall intensity, surface soil moisture content at depths of 0-5 cm, soil and water conservation measures (longitudinal ridges, cross ridges, grass, forest, and flat field under. By using three different types of ground coverings/conditions, we'll be able to figure out which are most resistant or most susceptible to erosion. Personally, I've found the best success in my raised beds by using a combination of native soil (or garden soil) and organic material like compost, but depending on what you have available and your budget, you have many options to choose from. See more ideas about Drainage solutions, Backyard landscaping and Outdoor gardens. pdf) Lab 2 Answer Key (. It is a double set due to differentiation of questions. applied to the soil surface can be washed deep into the soil and often reach the water table via macropores arising from root action, earth worms and cracks in the soil. (Entry 1 of 2) 1 : a final race, contest, or election to decide an earlier one that has not resulted in a decision in favor of any one competitor. Click or Press the Enter or Spacebar key to view the larger image. 2014 Envirothon - Coshocton County Soils - ANSWER KEY General Questions 1. Fine-textured (clay) soils: usually form very hard lumps or clods when dry and is quite plastic. That is still 50 lbs. Watershed- The boundary between two separate basins. Most of the phosphorus in the biosphere is stored in the BONES AND TEETH OF ORGANISMS OR PLANTS, ROCKS & SOIL IN GEOSPHERE 2. Only about 35% of precipitation ends up in the sea or ocean. the soil both by adding important nutrients for plants and 20 by providing excellent drainage. 7 ALLUVIAL FANS 312. , Author: Easy Eight, Length: 3 pages, Published: 2019-09-09. The soil that is most affected by erosion is the topsoil layer. , ditches) that direct site runoff to a detention basin. Sun Path Practice 3 Answers Astro MC Answers Water Cycle Answers Groundwater Answers Porosity, Permeability, Capillarity Key Water Cycle Key Station Model MC Answers Station Model Practice 1 Answers Station Model Practice 2 Answers Test Review Answers NY Tornado Answers Dew Point Temp Key RH and DewPoint Key Wind Belts and Clouds M. Soil composition activity and lesson. •Correct answer percentages are shown in the included table for a 10, 12, or 15 question quiz. One disadvantage of living in a floodplain is the risk of damaged property. soil bacteria and fungi C. The Movement of Soil, Part 1 By Trista L. 1 Sort the following twelve terms into six pairs of terms that most closely relate to one another. retard drainage. Kent (retired), Chief,. North Atlantic ar south as. All of the figures in the answer options. Indicate any areas of soil erosion which have resulted in gullies or ditches. 4 Performance Indicator: Students will be able to implement Boolean equations into a functional state machine. Storm water runoff has entered the basement or flows near the foundation. 9 Gullies or ditches from soil erosion. Pollution enters groundwater when polluted surface water percolates down through the soil. Grassland Savanna (tropical) Temperate. Color copies of the Chesapeake Bay. CONCEPT CHECK. minutes after the storm ended, the soils appeared as shown below. Factors such as cohesion, structure, and compaction can also affect erodibility, even in soils with similar textures. It determines the flow characteristics and erosional behavior. Serves as a buffer zone against noise. retard drainage. Somewhat poor drainage of the subsoil leads to the mottled look. A Method for Estimating Volume and Rate of Runoff in Small Watersheds K. large peak runoff volumes and supporting aquatic ecosystems 4,5. The texture of a soil determines its capacities and limitations. Stormwater is a term used to describe water flowing over ground surfaces and in natural streams and drains as a direct result of rainfall over a catchment. If the soil restoration area accepts runoff from adjacent impervious areas, the higher runoff reduction rates outlined in Table 4. STORM WATER - storm water runoff, snow melt runoff and surface runoff and drainage.
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